Click to learn more about authoráVictor DeMarines. As the May 25, 2018 deadline for the General Data Protection Act (GDPR) regulations inches closer, there isn?t a compliance officer on the planet who isn?t consumed with making sure every asset is covered. With the networked, global nature of our economy, the act is likely to touch [?]
by Angela Guess According to a new press release, ?NICE today announced the release of the GDPR Compliance Center, its groundbreaking mission-specific solution for meeting the requirements of the European Union?s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the contact center. The NICE solution streamlines the implementation of mechanisms for the adequate processing of private [?]
I hate writing about politics because the topic is so polarizing. However, I?ve had enough questions about the net neutrality issue that I felt InfoWorld readers needed some preliminary guidance about its effect on enterprise-grade cloud computing.
It?s the morning of May 18, 2018 and you arrive at your desk to find a message from a former job applicant in Germany asking for an inventory of all Personally Identifiable Information (PII) you have for him, and a request to delete all his information. There?s also a notice from IT saying they have [?]
by Angela Guess A new press release states, ?With the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) taking effect May 25, 2018, businesses around the globe should be preparing accordingly. However, through a recent survey, Trend Micro Incorporated, a global leader in cybersecurity solutions, found that C-suite executives are not approaching the regulation with the seriousness required, [?]
Natural killer (NK) cells detect and kill virally infected and transformed cells. NK cell activation depends on the balance between signaling by inhibitory and activating receptors, and cytokine signaling can synergize with activating receptor signaling to induce NK cell activation. Mukherjee et al . performed mass cytometry analysis of the abundances of more than 30 proteins and computational analysis of the relationships between those changes in abundance. The authors delineated the mechanism underlying the synergy between signaling by the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and subsequent stimulation of the activating receptor NKG2D in immature and mature subsets of human NK cells. This analysis predicted and experiments verified that the IL-2?stimulated increase in the abundance of the phosphatase CD45 in immature NK cells was the major determinant of the enhanced responses of these cells to NKG2D stimulation. The application of this type of analysis to other immune cell types will help to discover other synergies underlying cellular activation and function.
The linkage between stress early in life and behavioral depression in adulthood is complex. Pe˝a et al. were able to define a time period in early development when mice are especially susceptible to stress. Mice subjected to stress during this time period were less resilient to stress in adulthood. Genes regulated by the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) primed the response toward depression in adulthood. Although early stress could establish the groundwork for later depression, that priming could be undone by intervention at the right moment.
Science , this issue p. 
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2.1+ NSCs and generation of deep granule neurons. Accordingly, hunger and satiety regulate adult neurogenesis by modulating the activity of this hypothalamic-V-SVZ connection. Our findings reveal that neural circuitry, via mosaic innervation of the V-SVZ, can recruit distinct NSC pools allowing on-demand neurogenesis in response to physiology and environmental signals.
Acetylation of histone H4 by the histone acetyltransferase CBP during sepsis switches chromatin to an open state, which enables the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. Understanding the regulation of CBP stability could help in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Wei et al. showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit FBXL19 ubiquitylated CBP, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. The authors also showed that the deubiquitylase USP14 reversed this process, enhancing CBP stability. Furthermore, signaling by the bacterial product LPS prevented the FBXL19-CBP interaction and enhanced USP14 activity, thus promoting inflammatory cytokine production. Pharmacological inhibition of USP14 led to reduced CBP abundance and decreased cytokine production, suggesting that manipulation of CBP stability may provide a means to control inflammatory responses to infections.
In a world constantly bombarded by ransomware, viruses, and other data breaches, people want to feel that they and their data are protected. As such, the EU?s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) compliance law has caused quite the buzz since it was approved in April 2016. In short, GDPR ensures data protection for any EU citizen.
by Angela Guess A new press release reports, ?With one year remaining until the commencement of EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), new research by RiskIQ reveals that more than one-third of all public web pages of FTSE 30 companies capturing personally identifiable information (PII) are in danger of violating the regulation by doing so ?
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome. We show that an intron is retained in mature transcripts from each of two Jumonji family genes, JARID2 and JMJD3 , in female dragons that have been sex-reversed by temperature but not in normal chromosomal females or males. JARID2 is a component of the master chromatin modifier Polycomb Repressive Complex 2, and the mammalian sex-determining factor SRY is directly regulated by an independent but closely related Jumonji family member. We propose that the perturbation of JARID2/JMJD3 function by intron retention alters the epigenetic landscape to override chromosomal sex-determining cues, triggering sex reversal at extreme temperatures. Sex reversal may then facilitate a transition from genetic sex determination to TSD, with JARID2/JMJD3 intron retention preserved as the decisive regulatory signal. Significantly, we also observe sex-associated differential retention of the equivalent introns in JARID2/JMJD3 transcripts expressed in embryonic gonads from TSD alligators and turtles, indicative of a reptile-wide mechanism controlling TSD.
Although much work has examined microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, relatively little is known about miRNA decay. Elbarbary et al. now identify Tudor-SN, an endonuclease that interacts with the RNA-induced silencing complex. Tudor-SN targets miRNAs at CA and UA dinucleotides located more than five nucleotides from miRNA ends. Tudor-SN-mediated miRNA decay removes miRNAs that silence genes encoding proteins that are critical for the G1-to-S phase transition in the cell cycle.
Science , this issue p. 
Hematopoietic stem cells are a common progenitor of adaptive and innate immune cells. However, the precise factors that guide differentiation down these disparate pathways remain unclear in part because of difficulties working with small numbers of precursor cells. Lee et al. solve this problem for myeloid lineage cells by immortalizing murine myeloid progenitors with conditionally overexpressed Hoxb8 and labeling these cells with a Ccr2/Cx3cr1 dual reporter. They found through a small-molecule library screen and confirmatory in vivo validation that the mTORC1-S6K1-Myc pathway regulates myeloid differentiation. Disrupting this pathway in progenitors results in lack of monocytes and neutrophils. Hence, the mTORC1-S6K1-Myc pathway functions as a checkpoint in terminal myeloid differentiation.
The March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident prompted regulators around the world to take a hard look at their requirements for protecting nuclear plants against severe accidents. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ordered a ?top-to-bottom? review of its regulations, and ultimately approved a number of safety upgrades. It rejected other risk-reduction measures, however, using a screening process that did not adequately account for impacts of large-scale land contamination events. Among rejected options was a measure to end dense packing of 90 spent fuel pools, which we consider critical for avoiding a potential catastrophe much greater than Fukushima. Unless the NRC improves its approach to assessing risks and benefits of safety improvements?by using more realistic parameters in its quantitative assessments and also taking into account societal impacts?the United States will remain needlessly vulnerable to such disasters.
Regulators in Europe and the United States are asking flower breeders to destroy vast numbers of petunias after a chance discovery by a Finnish plant biologist revealed that several varieties are genetically engineered (GE). Officials say the petunias pose no threat to human health or the environment?and likely were unknowingly sold for years?but it?s illegal to sell them without a permit. The varieties may be descendants of a 30-year-old biotechnology breakthrough that researchers in the field assumed were never commercialized. The petunia carnage highlights the growing complexity of regulating GE plants, which have a history of showing up where they aren?t allowed and can be hard to track.